Overview of Avionic Systems and Systems Engineering Processes

  • What is avionic systems engineering?
  • Terminologies
  • Background
  • Applications
  • Guidance and standards
  • Systems integration
  • Systems interaction
  • Flight control systems
  • Engine control systems
  • Fuel systems
  • Hydraulic systems
  • Electrical systems
  • Pneumatic Systems
  • Environmental condition systems
  • Emergency systems
  • Rotary wing systems
  • Military radar systems
  • DO-178b/c
  • RTCA DO-178B/C / EUROCAE ED-12B/C
  • Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification
  • Software certification standard for airborne systems on commercial aircraft
  • Various software life cycle processes
  • DO-254
  • DO-254 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware
  • Aircraft electronic systems assurance of electronic airborne equipment safely
  • Line replaceable units
  • Circuit board assemblies
  • Application specific integrated circuits (ASICs)
  • Programmable logic devices

Flight Control Systems

  • Principles of flight control
  • Flight control surfaces
  • Primary flight control
  • Secondary flight control
  • Commercial aircraft
    • Primary flight control
    • Secondary flight control
  • Flight control linkage systems
    • Push-pull control rod system
    • Cable and pulley system
  • High lift control systems
  • Trim and feel
  • Flight control actuation
    • Simple mechanical/hydraulic actuation
    • Mechanical actuation with electrical signaling
    • Multiple redundancy actuation
    • Mechanical screwjack actuator
    • Integrated Actuator Package (IAP)
    • Advanced actuation implementations
  • Civil system implementations
    • Top-level comparison
    • Airbus implementation
  • Fly-By-Wire control laws
  • A380 flight control actuation
  • Boeing 777 implementation
  • Boeing 787 Implementation
  • Military Aircraft Implementation
  • Interrelationship of flight control, guidance and flight management

Engine Control Systems

  • Engine/airframe interfaces
  • Engine technology and principles of operation
  • The control problem
  • Engine indications
  • Engine oil systems
  • Engine off takes
  • Reverse thrust
  • Engine control on modern civil aircraft

Fuel Systems

  • Characteristics of fuel systems
  • Description of fuel system components
  • Fuel quantity measurement
  • Fuel system operating modes
  • Integrated civil aircraft systems
  • Fuel tank safety
  • Polar operations – cold fuel management

Hydraulic Systems

  • Hydraulic circuit design
  • Hydraulic actuation
  • Hydraulic fluid
  • Fluid pressure
  • Fluid temperature
  • Fluid flow rate
  • Hydraulic piping
  • Hydraulic pumps
  • Fluid conditioning
  • Hydraulic reservoir
  • Warnings and status
  • Emergency power sources
  • Proof of design
  • Aircraft system applications
  • Civil transport comparison
    • Airbus A320
    • Boeing
  • Landing gear systems

Electrical Systems

  • Electrical power evolution
  • Aircraft electrical system
  • Power generation
  • Primary power distribution
  • Power conversion and energy storage
  • Secondary power distribution
  • Typical aircraft dc system
  • Typical civil transport electrical system
  • Electrical loads
  • Emergency power generation
  • Recent systems developments
    • Electrical Load Management System (ELMS)
    • Variable Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF)
    • VDC Systems
    • More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) 227
  • Recent electrical system developments
  • Electrical systems displays
  • MIL-STD-1553
  • MIL-STD-1760
  • MIL-STD-1773

Pneumatic Systems

  • Use of bleed air
  • Engine bleed air control
  • Bleed air system indications
  • Bleed air system users
  • Pitot static systems

Environmental Control Systems

  • The need for a controlled environment
  • The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
  • Environmental control system design
  • Cooling systems
  • Humidity control
  • The inefficiency of present systems
  • Air distribution systems
  • Cabin noise
  • Cabin pressurization
  • g tolerance
  • Rain dispersal
  • Anti-misting and de-misting
  • Aircraft icing

Emergency Systems

  • Warning systems
  • Fire detection and suppression
  • Emergency power sources
  • Explosion suppression
  • Emergency oxygen
  • Passenger evacuation
  • Crew escape
  • Computer-controlled seats
  • Ejection system timing
  • High speed escape
  • Crash recorder
  • Crash switch
  • Emergency landing
  • Emergency system testing

Rotary Wing Systems

  • Special requirements of helicopters
  • Principles of helicopter flight
  • Helicopter flight control
  • Primary flight control actuation
  • Key helicopter systems
  • Helicopter auto-flight control
  • Active control technology
  • Advanced battlefield helicopter
  • Tilt rotor systems

Advanced Systems

  • STOL Manoeuvre Technology Demonstrator (SMTD)
  • Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)
  • More-electric aircraft
  • More-electric engine
  • Stealth
    • Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
    • Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC)
  • Vehicle management system
  • More-electric aircraft
  • More-electric actuation
  • More-electric engine
  • Impact of stealth design
  • Technology developments/demonstrators

System Design and Development

  • SEMP and ConOps
  • Systems analysis and  design
  • Development processes
  • System design
    • Key agencies and documentation
    • Design guidelines and certification
    • Techniques
    • Key elements of the development process
  • Major safety processes
    • Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)
    • Preliminary System Safety Analysis (PSSA)
    • System Safety Analysis (SSA)
    • Common Cause Analysis (CCA)
  • Requirements capture
    • Top-down approach
    • Bottom-up approach
  • Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
  • Dependency diagram
  • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
  • DFMEA and PFMEA applied
  • FMECA and FTA
  • Component reliability
    • Analytical methods
    • In-service data
  • Dispatch reliability
  • Markov analysis
  • Reliability and safety engineering
  • Development processes
    • The product life cycle
    • Concept phase
  • Definition phase
    • Design phase
    • Build phase
    • Test phase (qualification phase)
    • Operate phase
    • Disposal or refurbish
    • Development program
    • ‘V’ diagram
  • Extended Operations (ETOPS)

Avionics Technology

  • The nature of microelectronic devices
    • Processors
    • Memory devices
    • Digital data buses
    • A 429 data bus
    • MIL-STD-1553B
    • ARINC 629 data bus
    • COTS data buses
  • Data bus integration of aircraft systems
    • COTS data buses – IEEE 1394 468
  • Fiber optic buses
  • Avionics packaging standards
  • Typical LRU architecture
  • Integrated modular avionics

Military Avionics

  • Military communications
  • Radar
  • Sonar
  • Electro-Optics
  • ESM/DAS
  • Aircraft networks

Avionics Protocols in Military

  • Aircraft Data Network (ADN): Ethernet derivative for Commercial Aircraft
  • Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX): Specific implementation of ARINC 664 (ADN) for Commercial Aircraft
  • ARINC 429: Generic Medium-Speed Data Sharing for Private and Commercial Aircraft
  • ARINC 664: See ADN above
  • ARINC 629: Commercial Aircraft (Boeing 777)
  • ARINC 708: Weather Radar for Commercial Aircraft
  • ARINC 717: Flight Data Recorder for Commercial Aircraft
  • IEEE 1394b: Military Aircraft
  • MIL-STD-1553: Military Aircraft
  • MIL-STD-1760: Military Aircraft
  • TTP – Time-Triggered Protocol: Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Airbus A380, Fly-By-Wire Actuation Platforms from Parker Aerospace
  • TTEthernet – Time-Triggered Ethernet: NASA Orion Spacecraft

Fundamentals of DO-178C

  • Introduction to DO-178B and Do-178C
  • DO-178B vs. DO-178C
  • DO-178/DO-254 certification process
  • DO-178/DO-254 project planning and management
  • DO-178/DO-254 master plan
  • DO-178/DO-254 need analysis and requirements
  • Software life cycle processes
  • Software life cycle definition
  • Transition criteria between processes
  • Software development plan
  • Software life cycle environment planning
  • Software development standards
  • Review of the software planning process software considerations in System life cycle processes
  • System considerations in software life cycle processes
  • Software plan development and certification
  • Software development, design, coding and testing techniques
  • DO-178C criticality levels
  • Software design, testing, verification and validation processes
  • Software planning process objectives
  • Software planning process activities
  • Software plans
  • Plan for Software Aspects of Certification (PSAC)
  • Software Quality Assurance Planning (SQAP)
  • Software Configuration Management Planning (SCMP)
  • Software Development Planning (SDP)
  • Requirements, design, code, and integration
  • Software Verification Planning (SVP)
  • Reviews, tests, and analysis
  • Programmable hardware plan development and certification
  • Software and programmable hardware verification and validation
  • Recommended templates and recommendations
  • Hardware design life cycle
  • Tool qualification
  • Cost estimation and metrics
  • Software aspects of certification
  • Compliance determination

Fundamentals of DO-254

  • DO-254 compliance
  • System safety and Design Assurance Level (DAL)
  • Application of DO-254 by EASA and FAA
  • DO-254 hardware design lifecycle objectives and data
  • Integral/supporting processes
  • Validation and verification
  • Configuration management
  • Process assurance
  • Tool qualification
  • COTs cores and IPs
  • Single event upset and SRAM parts
  • Functional Failure Path (FFP)
  • Elemental analysis
  • Advanced verification techniques
  • Plan for Hardware Aspects of Certification (PHAC)
  • Requirements capture
  • Conceptual design
  • Detailed design
  • Implementation and production transition