SONET SDH Training Fundamentals

Commitment 2 Days, 7-8 hours a day.
Language English
User Ratings Average User Rating 4.8 See what learners said
Delivery Options Instructor-Led Onsite, Online, and Classroom Live


Optical networks are a key component of the global telecommunications infrastructure.  Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) have become the worldwide standard for the interface and multiplexing of user information to optical networks.  SONET/SDH systems allow much greater network flexibility and management over existing optical systems.

In this SONET SDH Training course, you will learn both the technology and applications of SONET/SDH.  We will review the SONET/SDH system components as well as the end-to-end SONET/SDH network design process.  We will also discuss the essentials of SONET/SDH synchronization, control, network management, and practical deployment issues.  In short, this course will give you the knowledge and skills needed to understand and deploy this important technology.


Upon completing this SONET SDH Training course, learners will be able to meet these objectives:

  • Understand the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of this field
  • Define the important SONET/SDH terms
  • Identify applications of SONET/SDH
  • Describe the detailed workings of SONET/SDH
  • Name the key components of SONET/SDH systems and describe how they fit together
  • Design a SONET/SDH  system
  • Describe the limitations of the SONET/SDH technology
  • List the objectives and characteristics of the next-generation SONET/SDH systems
  • Describe the vision and structure of the Next Generation Network (NGN) project as it affects SONET/SDH


  • We can tailor the content and tech level of this SONET SDH course to the intended audience, e.g., transmission or network engineers, optical system installers, managers, and marketing, or sales personnel. Also, if desired, the course can be extended by a day to include a review/overview of modern telecommunications as related to SONET/SDH and optical networking.
  • If you are familiar with some aspects of this SONET SDH course, we can omit or shorten their discussion.
  • We can adjust the emphasis placed on the various topics or build the SONET SDH course around the mix of technologies of interest to you (including technologies other than those included in this outline).
  • If your background is nontechnical, we can exclude the more technical topics, include the topics that may be of special interest to you (e.g., as a manager or policy-maker), and present the SONET SDH course in a manner understandable to lay audiences.


The target audience for this SONET/SDH Training course:

  • Engineers and technicians who design, work with or install SONET/SDH systems are the primary audiences. However, the course can be tailored for managers, marketing/sales, procurement, and other personnel who need a less technical overview of this subject.


SONET SDH Training Fundamentals

The knowledge and skills that a learner must have before attending this SONET SDH Training Fundamentals course are:

  • Some prior exposure to telecommunications networks will be helpful.
SONET Technology and Terminology
  • SONET digital hierarchy
  • Comparison with the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
  • SONET equipment types
  • STS-1 frame format
SONET Headers
  • Section Overhead (SOH)
  • Line Overhead (LOH)
  • Path Overhead (POH)
  • Floating payload: SONET pointers
  • Synchronization and accommodating jitter
Virtual Tributaries (Containers)
  • VT groups
  • Virtual tributaries pointers
  • SONET VT multi frame
  • SONET mapping of asynchronous DS-1, byte-synchronous DS-1, asynchronous DS-3, and asynchronous DS-4
SONET SDH Training – STS-N Frame Format
  • STS-N frame structure
  • Concatenated STS-Nc frame format
  • STS-Nc frame structure.
SDH versus SONET
  • SONET vs SDH frame structure
  • STM-1 frame
  • Overhead bytes and their function
  • SDH layers
  • Mapping in SDH: C4 mapping and C-3 mapping examples
  • Hierarchical multiplexing structure
SONET/SDH Networking
  • Network survivability architectures
  • Protection topologies: Linear
  • Protection topologies: Ring
  • protection topologies: Mesh
  • Topologies: Rings, # fibers, directionality
  • SONET: Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
  • SONET linear APS
  • Add-Drop Multiplexing (ADM)
  • Digital Cross-Connects (DCC)
Current Architectures: Ring Protection
  • Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR)
  • Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR/2)
  • Bi-directional Line Switched Ring (BLSR/4)
  • Mesh restoration versus ring/linear protection
SONET SDH Training – IP over SONET
  • IP over Optical Networks (IPO)
  • Packets over SONET (POS)
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) – RFC1661
SONET/SDH Limitations
Next Generation SONET/SDH
  • Virtual Concatenation: VCAT
  • SONET channelization and concatenation
  • Virtual concatenation group
  • Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme: LCAS
  • LCAS architecture
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
  • GFP client signal adaptation
  • GFP frame format
  • Adding GFP on SONET
  • Ethernet over SONET
  • Virtual concatenation for Ethernet
Optical Transport Network
  • OTN hierarchical overview
  • Basic transport structure of an OTN
  • OTN transmitter and receiver
  • OTN layer structure
  • OTN interface classes
Next Generation Network (NGN)
  • Merging the voice and data worlds
  • The vision of ITU-T NGN
  • Structure of ITU NGN Focus Group (FGNGN)
SONET SDH Training FundamentalsSONET SDH Training Fundamentals Course Wrap-Up